Victims of terrorism gathered on Sunday (September 8th) to commemorate a tragic episode in Jakarta’s recent history – namely, the 9th anniversary of the 2004 Australian Embassy bombing, which killed nine people and wounded at least 150 others.
“Many people might have forgotten [about the incident]. But I think it is important to make them aware that the terrorists’ victims do exist, and we are still struggling with the aftermath of the attacks,” said Mulyono Sutrisman, chairman of the Kuningan Forum, an association of people who have been affected by extremist violence.
Such atrocities must not happen again, he said at the event, which was sponsored by Alliance for Peaceful Indonesia (AIDA)
Sudirman Abdul Talib, 31, is a former security guard at the embassy. He lost his left eye in the attack and suffers from a permanent disability affecting both of his hands.
“As victims, we want to be involved in the government’s deradicalisation programme, in eliminating terrorism and preventing the growth of violent extremism in Indonesia,” Sudirman told Khabar Southeast Asia.
He believes that if all victims are united against terrorism and promote peace, it will make a difference in the future.
“We just want to be involved in making Indonesia more peaceful,” he added.
Sudirman, who now works as an administrative staff member for the security guard department, says he does not want to become a prisoner of the trauma he experienced. He believes his story can be used to change the minds of those who have been misled by violent and extremist groups.
“I have met a few former convicted terrorists. I told them about the impact of the terrorism. They were shocked and cried. They regretted their actions and apologised,” Sudirman said. “It is clear to see that sharing and explaining the impact of terrorism on the victims is an effective method to convince them [terrorists] to stop their actions.”
A crucial role in combating extremist notions
The director of AIDA, Hasibullah Satrawi, said that Indonesia has the potential to win the battle against terrorism – not only because of law enforcement efforts, but also because victims of terrorism have been willing to join in efforts to combat it.
“The victims play a strategic role in bringing Indonesia to a more peaceful place,” he said. Therefore, it is very important to empower the victims – whether mentally, physically, or financially.”
Al Chaidar, a terrorism analyst, agreed that those affected by violence have great potential to combat recruitment by extremist groups. He agreed that the government should involve victims of terrorist activity in deradicalisation programmes.
“By meeting and seeing the victims, the terrorists would consider the actions that they are going to take because they have seen the impact of their attacks,” he added.
Sudirman, the wounded security guard, says he is troubled that his hometown of Bima, in West Nusa Tenggara, is being appropriated by terrorists as a base for planning their attacks. In 2011, police raided the local Umar bin Khattab Muslib Boarding School, where they found bomb-making materials as well as weapons and jihadist videos.
“Bima is a very religious place,” Sudirman said. Muslims pray five times a day and have strong faith. As far as I know, they are not radical people. They need moderate religious leaders to tell them that Islam is actually a religion of peace,” he said.
Those vulnerable to the message of radical terrorists need to be aware of the consequences of violence, he reiterated. “They need to meet people just like us to show them the impact of terrorist acts. It is also hurting Muslims as well,” Sudirman said.
TVRI is widely criticised for airing footage of a Hizbut Tahrir leader rejecting democracy, religious freedom and nationalism.
Indonesia’s public broadcaster was forced to apologise last month after it aired hardline views of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) rejecting Pancasila and democracy, causing a public outcry.
On June 6th, Television of the Republic of Indonesia (TVRI) aired edited, one-hour footage of an HTI congress that took place four days earlier in Jakarta, with the theme “Change the World through Khilafah”.
In the broadcast, Farid Wajdi, chairman of the central board of HTI, was seen stating that democracy is a form of kufur (denial of God) because its fundamental principle is liberalism, and that freedom of religion had created a number of cults that should not be protected.
In conclusion, he argued that democracy and nationalism must be left behind and replaced by aKhilafah Islamiyah system (Caliphate).
The programme drew broad outrage, from religious leaders, activists and common people.
“How come TVRI aired a hardline Islamic group meeting, which clearly rejected Pancasila and democracy?” Imdadun Rahmat, deputy secretary general of the moderate Islamic organisation Nahdlatul Ulama, told Khabar Southeast Asia.
“TVRI has bigger obligations than a private broadcasting company. It has an obligation to promote the values of Pancasila and promote the Indonesian motto of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (unity in diversity),” he said.
Going further, Imdadun argued that TVRI should raise awareness in civil society about the dangers of transnational radical organisations such as HTI – especially when those organisations openly reject Pancasila democracy.
Neutral and independent
Tutik Werdani, a 34 year-old Jakarta resident, agreed.
“TVRI is public television. The public paid for it. But why do they provide a special space to an organisation which rejects Pancasila? This could mislead Indonesian viewers about our national ideology,” she told Khabar.
“TVRI should be neutral and independent. If it wanted to air the HTI congress, it should also present counter-opinions” on topics such as democracy and pluralism, Nurvina Alifa, an advocacy co-ordinator at media watchdog group Remotivi, told Khabar.
An alliance of 14 civil society organisations including the Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace and the Moderate Muslim Society issued a statement protesting the broadcast.
“Our protest is not intended to neglect freedom of expression. But this is a protest of people who believe in law enforcement and freedom of expression,” the statement read.
Restricting speech is justified when that restriction leads to greater freedom in society, the group argued.
Consequences for TVRI
In the midst of the fallout, on June 10th, Irwan Hendarmin, TVRI’s director of programmes and news, appeared before the Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (KPI) to provide clarification.
According to KPI’s official website, Irwan apologised to all parties and Indonesian citizens, on behalf of TVRI, for the mistake. “It is a lesson for us in the near future,” Irwan told the KPI.
On June 21st, KPI issued administrative sanctions requiring TVRI to air a statement five times a day for the next three days.
“TVRI is carrying out the request of the Indonesian Broadcasting Commission to ensure that the contents of its broadcasts uphold Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the Broadcasting Law (UU No 32/2002),” the statement read.
“We received many public complaints about the programme from various elements of society,” Commissioner Nina Mutmainnah told Khabar regarding the HTI broadcast.
“It is because the programme showed a number of speeches that obviously rejected Pancasila and the implementation of democracy in Indonesia.”
Of the sanctions, she said, “It is a lesson for TVRI and for other broadcasting companies in Indonesia. They must follow broadcasting regulations and make sure that they do not harm public interests.”
By Andhika Bhakti and Elisabeth Oktofani for Khabar Southeast Asia in Jakarta
A former bomb-maker and weapons smuggler is now an ambassador of peace.
Ali Fauzi once taught people to make bombs. Today, he is one of the few former militants who now devotes himself to telling the public about the harm terrorism inflicts.
In April and May, he accompanied Ansyaad Mbai, head of the National Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT) to several cities, speaking freely about his past and explaining how terrorism defiles Islam.
Detonating bombs in public places kills many innocent people, including children, he explained. Terrorist networks steal money to purchase bomb-making materials. Worst of all, he said, they don’t take responsibility for their attacks, leaving other people to be accused.
“You can’t be secretive. There has to be a leader who takes responsibility,” he said at a BNPT event in Balikpapan, Kalimantan, according to a Jawa Pos News Network (JPNN) report.
The 42-year-old native of Lamongan, East Java is the youngest brother of Amrozi and Ali Ghufron, both convicted and executed for their roles in the 2002 Bali bombings that killed 202 people and injured hundreds.
In 1998-1999, he was an instructor at a Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) militant camp in East Java, where he taught nearly 250 people about how to make bombs.
“Back then I was an instructor for a field engineering class at an East Java training camp. I taught them about chemical materials and firing devices for bomb making,” he told Khabar Southeast Asia.
From 1999-2002, in Ambon and in Poso, he became a field co-ordinator for Crisis Management and Prevention Committee (KOMPAK), a JI-linked group with humanitarian aims.
During this time, he began to sour on JI, realising its doctrine was not consistent with Sharia Islam, since it permitted violence against civilians.
“I really never agreed with any jihads involving attacking/bombing churches in conflict areas, exploding nightclubs in Bali or hotels in Jakarta,” he explained.
He called many of those violent acts a “wrong jihad.”
“Many wrong jihads would kill innocent people. It also created a bad image for Muslims. Additionally, it is not a jihad because Indonesia is not a jihad ground,” he added.
Ali described how easy it was for him and his comrades to move weapons around the region to supply Muslims fighting Christians in Ambon and Poso.
He said he dressed as a migrant worker to cross to Sabah in eastern Malaysia, using a fishing boat in the dark. “You don’t need a passport. I didn’t carry one. For the security, it is really hard to confirm your ID and your face in the dark,” he told Khabar.
“We packed the guns into large backpacks and travelled on fishing boats or petrol tankers heading for Indonesia from the Philippines,” he added.
“The route from Sabah to Southern Philippines is a favourite route for many militant fighters in Southeast Asia. It is the same route used by Indonesian militants to escape the country,” BNPT chief Ansyaad told Khabar. He said a regional approach among Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines is needed to address the problem.
Many friends, many perspectives
Ali was active with the MILF from 2003-2006. But since then, he has lived a life of peace, and made friends with many different people.
“I have many friends, who are Christian, Hindu, and Chinese. I am cool with them. All we need is to respect each other,” he said.
A father of five, Ali is active in farming and teaching. He serves as a lecturer at The School of Tarbiyah at Muhammadiyah University and at Al Islam boarding school, both in Lamongan, East Java.
He teaches on the need for unity among followers of Islam. According to him, Islam accommodates many different perspectives. “It needs to be understood that different views in Islam have existed for a very long time and cannot be avoided,” he said.
“Therefore, we need to respect each other’s point of view…If we cannot do so, that is the root of radicalism,” Ali explained.
He emphasised his faith in Islam will never fade. Although he rejects radicalism and terrorist acts, he says he is still a “mujahid” who defends Islam through dakwah (missionary work) and preaching.
True defender of Islam
Ali’s story has inspired many people. Precisely because of the years he spent on the wrong path, he has credibility in pointing out the right one.
“I wish in the future that there will be more people like Ali Fauzi – someone who decides to do jihad in a good way by using his personal experience when he was a member of JI,” said Hanung Wicaksono, a Muslim cleric in West Jakarta.
“We need more people like Ali, who is now defending Islam in a good way,” he added.
“I was reading a recent profile in the media about Ali Fauzi. I am pretty amazed with his experiences, and I am glad he decided to convert from a trainer in militant camps to an educator. It is a good change,” said Bambang Setiyono, a 23-year-old in Tangerang, Jakarta.
Indonesia needs more people like Fauzi to “help the Indonesian government tackle terrorism and to begood examples for those who value jihad in the wrong way,” Bambang said.
“He is now an ambassador of peace.”
Despite the 2005 peace pact that ended 30 years of bloody conflict in Aceh, life in the province has not improved for women and children since then.
That was the stark message conveyed by a panel of women activists from Indonesia’s westernmost province, who were in Jakarta June 4th to present findings on violence against women in Aceh from 2011-2012.
During that time, there were 1,060 cases of violence against women, according to the 231 Monitoring Network, a coalition of women’s rights groups based in Aceh.
The name refers to Article 231, on women empowerment and child protection, of Law No. 11 2006, which allowed Aceh to implement Sharia Law under its special autonomy status.
The coalition argues that women have been victimised, not protected, as a result of the imposition of Sharia law in Aceh. They face difficulty accessing justice, stigmatisation, intimidation and violence.
The activists stressed, however, that they are not against Sharia itself. It is the way it is being implemented that is raising questions.
“The implementation of Sharia Law should be able to restore proper justice and improve social welfare to its citizens, which we did not get during the conflict,” Samsidar, an activist from the Aceh Women’s Legal Aid Foundation (LBH Apik Aceh), told Khabar Southeast Asia.
“On top of that, it should protect women and children in Aceh,” she added.
Cruel and humiliating punishments
The National Commission on Violence against Women (Komnas Perempuan), which hosted the gathering, has identified 282 regional regulations (Perda) that discriminate against women in various parts of Indonesia.
In Aceh, Komnas Perempuan has identified 15 such regulations. Violating them can lead to cruel and humiliating punishments such as beatings, canings, being bathed in sewage water, and forced marriages, the group said.
“Many regulations are established to promote religious values and morality. But their implementation tends to violate human rights which are protected by the Indonesian Constitution,” Komnas Perempuan Commissioner Andy Yentriyani said.
Aziana Rambe, the secretary general of Women Volunteers for Humanity (RPuK), told reporters that some regulations merely serve to distract local people from more important issues.
A new bylaw forbidding tight outfits for women in Meulaboh, West Aceh, diverts attention from the government’s failure to provide housing for 2004 tsunami victims in Meulaboh, she charged.
If the local government were properly implementing Sharia Law, “they would focus on how to improve Islamic public service and social welfare for Aceh citizens,” Aziana argued.
She said they would neither focus on the women’s outfits nor women’s dancing.
Pro-democracy and pro-Islam
In Aceh, those who criticise authorities are quickly labeled anti-Sharia or anti-Islam. The activists, however, say that is not true.
“As Acehnese, why would we speak something bad about Aceh and still want to return to Aceh at the end of the day?” Norma Manalu, an activist from the Women’s Shura Hall of Aceh (BSUIA), told the forum.
“We want Aceh to be safe. We want to go home without violence or discrimination anymore. We just want to live peacefully with our families in Aceh,” she explained in tears.
“We are not against the government. But if something is wrong, we should tell the government and provide them with some inputs,” said Suraiya Khamauzaman, founder of the Flower Aceh Foundation. “It is very important for the government and civil society to work together to meet our goal in eradicating discrimination against women and also improving social welfare.”
The women made it clear they embrace both democracy and Islam. “Indonesia is a democratic country, and Aceh is part of Indonesia. Therefore, we believe that there is a democratic space in Aceh as well,” Samsidar said.
“Even though there are many risks ahead of us, we want to use our right as Indonesian citizens to make our voices heard. It needs to be understood that Islam is a religion of justice, a religion of love, and cares about other people. Islam is a religion of equality and peace,” she added.
Civil society, media and religious leaders must help defeat terrorism in Indonesia, a top police official says. Many say they are already actively involved.
Indonesia’s National Police is calling on the media, civil society, religious leaders and activists to be actively involved in efforts to prevent terrorism and the growth of radicalism in the country.
Nearly 900 Indonesians have been arrested on terrorism charges since 2002, officials say. “We have arrested 864 alleged terrorists, brought them to trial, and 700 of them were jailed,” deputy National Police chief Nanan Sukarna told Metro TV in a May 9th interview.
Yet terrorism persists. A series of counterterrorism raids in three provinces last week (May 8-9th) left seven suspects dead, 13 in custody and one on the run. Police recently foiled a plot to bomb the Burmese Embassy in Jakarta; and top terror suspect Santoso is still at large.
“Government institutions, religious leaders, media and civil society must work together to prevent the growth of radicalism in the country,” Nanan urged.
Role of religious leaders
According to Nanan, current terrorism activities are conducted by a new generation of radicals united by an old ideology. Many have been brainwashed with distorted versions of Islamic doctrine.
“Hence in order to prevent the growth of radicalism among the society that leads to terrorism activities, we need the religious leaders’ involvement, both from Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah, to teach the correct teaching,” Nanan explained.
Muhammad Imdadun Rahmat, deputy secretary-general of NU, the nation’s largest moderate Muslim organisation, told Khabar Southeast Asia that some Islamic groups have been actively spreading hate speech to their followers.
“I don’t deny that there are some Islamic organisations in Indonesia that have become the nursery of terrorism. But it needs to be understood that those groups are minority among Muslim followers in Indonesia,” he said.
“We, religious leaders from NU, actually have been actively campaigning peaceful Islam to our followers based on Islamic value as well as spirituality,” he said. The same is being done by Muhammadiyah, Indonesia’s second largest Islamic organisation, he added.
The government should take serious action towards radical groups that have been actively spreading the hate speech, such as Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid (JAT), he suggested.
Role of the media
Nanan said that the media need to educate society about the danger of terrorism and how to prevent it. They should avoid spreading panic, or tipping off terror suspects to police activity.
“One of the disadvantages of having media report live on the terrorist raid operation while the operation is being conducted is that our next target would have a chance to escape,” he said.
Sometimes the media help spread terror, Nanan commented to Merdeka.com on May 11th. “How? When there is a bomb explosion and the mass media report it massively to the public, they have successfully spread around the terror,” he said.
“I think there should be a better co-operation between media and National Police on how the event and the issue should be reported. Media also have a role as an education tool,” he added.
“We want the media informing public the danger of terrorism or how to prevent the growth of terrorism in them so they are not easily influenced or approached by the radical people.”
Noor Huda Ismail, a terrorism expert and founder of the Institute for International Peace Building, agreed that live media reports on counterterrorism operations could become a terrorist’s tip-off.
“It needs to be remembered that the terrorist groups are brainy people, who would use media to monitor the law enforcers’ movement,” he told Khabar.
But Nezar Patria, a member of the Press Council, said live television reports on counterterrorism raids boost public confidence in law enforcement.
“There has been public mistrust on how the law enforcers conducted the terrorist raid operation. Hence it shows transparency to the public on how they captured the alleged terrorists,” he told Khabar.
“Other than that, the terrorist raid operation was conducted in public space. It attracts public and the media’s attention,” he added.
“Therefore, as long as the news coverage is done by the professional code of ethic and respect the police’s restriction, such as where we could stand to cover the story, I think it is fine,” Nezar said.
Improving social welfare
Meanwhile, Nanan, the deputy police chief, is well aware that many people arrested under terrorism charges come from lower income groups. Therefore, it is important to improve their social welfare.
“In my opinion, we can replace their false doctrine with a proper welfare. I believe if they have proper welfare, they would leave those false doctrines. So let’s work together to improve their welfare,” he said.
Noor Huda agreed. “In order to disengage militants from violence, one must reach out to them, provide skills training, and then approach their ideology,” he told Khabar.
His institute has a rehabilitation programme that provides skills training and runs businesses where former terrorists can work.
Machmudi Hariono, also known as Yusuf Adirima, 36, is one of them. The former Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) member manages a couple of restaurants in Semarang.
“All we need is a chance to change our life – a chance, inspirational motivation, continued public support and proper training,” Yusuf told Khabar.
Muslim and Christian leaders from 16 Asian countries pledged to work side by side to tackle present-day problems in the region at a recent conference here, grounding their common vision in religious teachings both share.
“Asia is currently facing serious problems of poverty and environmental degradation,” M. Nashihin Hasan, executive director of the International Conference of Islamic Scholars (ICIS), told Khabar Southeast Asia.
“Here, we are trying to find a solution based on religious values, and not secularism,” he added.
ICIS organised the four-day Conference of Muslim-Christian Religious Leaders of Asia, together with Indonesian Bishops Conference (KWI) and The Indonesian Communion of Churches (PGI).
Both the Qur’an and the Bible teach love of God and love of one’s neighbour. That shared teaching “provides a common ground for Muslims and Christians to work together for peace and harmony in this violence-torn world today”, a conference statement said.
Held February 26th-March 1st at Jakarta’s Hotel Acacia, the gathering was attended by 120 Indonesians and 55 religious leaders from 16 countries, including Pakistan, Afghanistan, Timor-Leste, India and Malaysia.
Many participants stressed the need for dialogue among believers of different religions as a means to foster a culture of harmony and peace in Asia.
Religious leaders need to come together on a regular basis on the local level, and to have a clear process of identifying common problems, Monsignor Felix Machado, archbishop of Vasai, India, told the forum on its opening day.
“This collaboration must be founded on the rejection of fanaticism, extremism and mutual antagonisms which lead to violence,” he said. “Education is also an important tool to promote mutual understanding, co-operation and respect.”
The growing gap between rich and poor was another common theme.
“I often heard various problems which could be identified as social and economic injustice in Asia as the result of modern prosperity only enjoyed by a few people, while many are exploited and marginalised,” Bishop Felix said.
The importance of dialogue
The chairman of Muhammadiyah, Indonesia’s second-largest Muslim organisation, told Khabar he appreciated the event and hoped it would be fruitful.
Both Islam and Christianity value humanity and both “have a significant role in developing and anticipating the dynamic of Asia as the future of the world,” Din Syamsuddin told Khabar outside Istiqlal Mosque, during a visit there by conference participants.
Dialogue among moderate religious leaders is important to push the government to take serious action on eradicating religious conflict, he said. He voiced hope that in the future, the conference would also invite religious leaders from fundamentalist groups, so their voices can be heard.
Afghan participant Fazalghani Kakar said he wants to apply what he learned in his home community.
“Although we don’t have many religions in Afghanistan …. This conference is very important for us because we are all aware that Afghanistan has been in war these past three decades,” he said.
“We also need dialogue to get a mutual understanding both technically and also professionally to create tolerance among us,” Fazalghani said.
A path of moderation
In their concluding statement participants pledged to renew efforts to promote peace and justice, prevent violence and facilitate dialogue in situations of conflict.
“We believe that if human dignity is respected, human values are promoted and the path [to] dialogue remains open, conflict can be avoided in every circumstance,” it said. “…A path of moderation and a pedagogy of persuasion are more in keeping with the Asian genius than the use of force or mutual denunciation.”
Conference participants understood such goals cannot be instantly achieved.
“We do not want to be in a rush,” Nashihin, of ICIS, said. “Perhaps, we would hold another meeting within three years to see the result of the implementation of our agreement.”